What Is Tall Fescue Grass?
Tall fescue grass (Festuca arundinacea) is a cool-season grass that is widely used in lawns, pastures, and turf applications. It thrives in regions with moderate temperatures, making it an excellent choice for lawns in USDA zones 3 to 9.Spreading method: Tall fescue is a bunch-type grass, which means it grows in dense clumps or tufts. Shade tolerance: It has moderate shade tolerance, making it suitable for lawns with partial shade. Drought resistance: Tall fescue has moderate drought resistance due to its deep root system. Foot traffic tolerance: It can withstand moderate foot traffic, but it has a lower ability to recover from wear and tear. Maintenance needs: Tall fescue grows quickly and requires regular mowing to maintain an optimal appearance. Mowing height: The recommended mowing height for tall fescue is typically between 2 to 4 inches, although it is important to check your specific cultivar and state recommendations. Many tall fescue lawns thrive when mowed on the taller side. Potential for disease: Under proper management conditions, tall fescue has a low to moderate potential for disease. Soil pH and type: Tall fescue thrives in soils with a pH range of 5.5 to 6.5 and prefers fertile soil with good drainage, although it can tolerate a wider range of soil conditions.
Overall, tall fescue grass is a versatile and durable grass that is well-suited for a variety of applications. It is a good choice for homeowners who are looking for a low-maintenance lawn that can withstand moderate use.
Characteristics of Tall Fescue Grass
Tall fescue grass is a popular choice for lawns and pastures due to its numerous desirable characteristics, including:Drought tolerance: Tall fescue has a deep root system that allows it to access moisture buried deep within the soil, making it well-suited for areas with limited rainfall. Shade tolerance: Tall fescue can thrive in lawns that receive partial to moderate shade, setting it apart as a versatile grass option. Leaf texture: Tall fescue has a coarser leaf texture than some other grass varieties, which contributes to its robust and rugged appearance.
Additional characteristics of tall fescue grass include:Color: Beautiful dark-green Texture: Medium Climate: Thrives in cool to warm climates, USDA zones 3 to 9 Performance:
- Good drought recovery
- Excellent adaptability and can thrive in a wide range of soil types
- Tolerant of saline soils and saline irrigation water
- Once established, provides superior wear tolerance
- Dense growth habit makes it highly resistant to disease
- Natural dark-green color means less nitrogen is required
- Slower growing
- Will recover from wear
Types of Tall Fescue GrassTall fescue is a diverse grass species with a wide range of varieties, each with its unique attributes. This diversity makes tall fescue suitable for various lawn and landscape applications, offering homeowners the flexibility to choose the type of tall fescue that best suits their specific needs and preferences. Creeping Red Fescue Creeping red fescue is known for its fine-textured leaves and exceptional shade tolerance. It is often the top choice for homeowners with lawns that receive heavy shade, where other grass types may struggle to thrive. Creeping red fescue can maintain its lush green appearance in low-light conditions, making it a valuable addition to any shaded landscape. Hard Fescue Hard fescue is characterized by its fine and narrow leaves. It excels in poor soil conditions and is an attractive choice for homeowners seeking low-maintenance lawns and naturalized areas. Hard fescue's adaptability to challenging soil types allows it to thrive where other grasses may falter, making it a resilient option for various landscapes. Chewings Fescue Chewings fescue is celebrated for its fine texture and dense growth, making it a preferred choice for golf courses and fine turf areas. Its ability to create a lush and visually appealing surface makes it a favorite among those who prioritize aesthetics and require a consistent, uniform lawn. Sheep Fescue Sheep fescue is a low-growing grass species that demands minimal maintenance, making it ideal for extensive landscapes and eco-friendly lawns. Its ability to thrive with minimal intervention appeals to homeowners seeking a hands-off approach to lawn care while still enjoying a verdant and attractive outdoor space.
Pros and Cons of Tall Fescue Grass
Advantages of Tall Fescue GrassDrought resistance: Tall fescue grass has a deep root system that allows it to withstand drought, making it a good choice for areas with limited rainfall. Low maintenance: Tall fescue grass is relatively low-maintenance, requiring less care and attention than some other types of grass. Disease resistance: Tall fescue grass is resistant to common lawn diseases, such as brown patch and dollar spot.
Disadvantages of Tall Fescue GrassSusceptibility to weeds: Tall fescue grass can be susceptible to weed invasion, so homeowners need to take steps to control weeds. Slower growth rate in summer: Tall fescue grass may grow slower than warm-season grasses during the summer months. Homeowners can help to mitigate this by watering and caring for their lawns properly.
Is Tall Fescue Right for Your Lawn?
Tall fescue is a popular grass choice for lawns, but it's not the perfect fit for every situation. Consider these factors to determine if tall fescue is the right grass for your lawn:
Tall fescue is a cool-season grass, so it thrives in cooler climates with moderate temperatures. It may not perform as well in areas with extreme heat or humidity. Consider your local climate conditions when choosing a grass type for your lawn.
Tall fescue grass needs well-drained soil to thrive. If your lawn's soil tends to retain excess moisture, you may need to address drainage issues before planting tall fescue.
Think about how you plan to use your lawn. Tall fescue is a durable grass that can withstand moderate foot traffic, but it's not as resilient as some other grass types. If you have a very active lawn with heavy foot traffic, you may want to consider a different grass type.
Tall fescue has a coarser leaf texture than some other grass varieties. Some homeowners prefer this rugged appearance, while others prefer a finer texture for a more manicured look. Consider your aesthetic preferences when choosing a grass type for your lawn.
Care Tips for Tall Fescue Grass
Tall fescue is a cool-season grass that requires at least 4-6 hours of direct sunlight per day to thrive. This means that the sun must shine directly on the grass for at least this amount of time each day, without being filtered by trees, buildings, or other objects.
If your lawn does not receive enough sunlight, the grass will be weak and more susceptible to pests, diseases, and other stressors. It may also turn yellow or brown, and become thin and patchy.
If you have areas of your lawn that are in shade, you may want to consider overseeding with shade-tolerant tall fescue varieties. This can help to maintain a lush and healthy lawn even in low-light conditions.
Before planting tall fescue, it is important to prepare the soil properly. This will help to ensure that the grass has a good foundation for healthy growth.
The first step is to remove any debris, rocks, and weeds from the planting area. This will create a clean surface for the grass to grow on. Next, you need to make sure that the soil is well-aerated and has good drainage. Tall fescue needs its roots to be able to breathe, and it doesn't tolerate waterlogged soil. To improve aeration and drainage, you can till the soil to a depth of 6-8 inches. You can also add organic matter, such as compost or manure, to the soil. Organic matter will help to loosen the soil and improve drainage.
It is also important to check the pH level of the soil. Tall fescue prefers a slightly acidic to neutral soil pH, typically around 6.0-7.0. If the pH level of your soil is too high or too low, you can use lime or sulfur to adjust it. You can conduct a soil test to determine the pH level of your soil and to identify any other nutrient deficiencies. Your local county extension office can help you to interpret the results of the soil test and recommend any necessary amendments.
Once you have prepared the soil, you are ready to plant the tall fescue seed. Be sure to follow the planting instructions on the seed packet. By following these tips, you can help to ensure that your tall fescue lawn has a strong foundation for healthy growth.
Some additional details about soil preparation for tall fescue:
- If you have heavy clay soil, you may want to consider adding sand to improve drainage.
- If you have sandy soil, you may want to add organic matter, such as compost or manure, to improve water retention.
- You can also add a slow-release fertilizer to the soil when you plant the tall fescue seed. This will help to provide the grass with the nutrients it needs to grow and thrive.
The best time to water tall fescue is early in the morning. This will give the grass time to absorb the water before the heat of the day. It is also important to avoid watering late in the evening, as this can leave the grass wet overnight and increase the risk of disease.
When watering your tall fescue lawn, aim to apply 1-1.5 inches of water per week. You can use a rain gauge to measure how much water you are applying. If you do not have a rain gauge, you can time your sprinkler to run for 20-30 minutes in each area of your lawn.
It is important to avoid overwatering your tall fescue lawn. Overwatering can lead to shallow root development, which will make your lawn more susceptible to drought and other stressors. It can also increase the risk of disease.
If you are not sure whether or not to water your lawn, it is best to err on the side of caution and wait a few days. You can always check the soil moisture by sticking your finger down into the ground. If the soil is moist at a depth of 2-3 inches, then you do not need to water.
Some additional tips for watering tall fescue:
- If you have sandy soil, you may need to water more often than if you have clay soil.
- During hot, dry weather, you may need to water your lawn more often. However, it is still important to water deeply and infrequently.
- A smart irrigation controller can help you to water your tall fescue lawn more efficiently and effectively. It can automatically adjust your watering schedule based on the weather. soil moisture level and other factors, so you can be sure that your lawn is getting the right amount of water without overwatering it.
Temperature and Humidity
Tall fescue is a cool-season grass, so it is susceptible to stress during periods of extreme heat and cold. To protect your tall fescue lawn, you can adjust your lawn care routine as follows:
- Water your lawn deeply and infrequently, especially during hot, dry weather. This will encourage deep root growth, which will make your lawn more resilient to drought and heat stress.
- Mow your lawn at the recommended height for tall fescue, which is 3.5 to 4.5 inches. Taller grass will help to shade the soil and keep it cool.
- Avoid mowing your lawn when it is stressed. This can include during periods of extreme heat, drought, or cold weather.
- Fertilize your lawn regularly with a balanced fertilizer. This will help to keep your lawn healthy and resilient to heat stress.
- Be sure to check your lawn regularly for pests and diseases. Early detection and treatment can help to prevent serious damage.
- Fertilize your lawn in the fall with a fertilizer that contains potassium. Potassium helps to strengthen the grass's cell walls and makes it more resistant to frost damage.
- Cover your lawn with a tarp or blanket on cold nights to protect it from frost.
- Water your lawn deeply and infrequently, even during the winter months. This will help to prevent the soil from drying out too much, which can damage the grass roots.
The three primary nutrients that tall fescue needs are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K).Nitrogen is essential for greening up and promoting lush growth. Phosphorus is important for root development and overall plant health. Potassium helps to strengthen the grass's cell walls and makes it more resistant to pests, diseases, and drought.
The amount of nutrients that tall fescue needs varies depending on the soil type, climate, and other factors. However, a general rule of thumb is to apply 1-2 pounds of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet of lawn each year. You can also use a fertilizer with a balanced NPK ratio, such as 16-4-8.
It is important to follow a seasonal fertilization schedule for tall fescue grass. The best time to fertilize tall fescue is in the spring and fall, when the grass is actively growing. However, you may need to fertilize more often in hot, dry climates. When fertilizing your tall fescue lawn, be sure to follow the instructions on the fertilizer label. Overfertilizing can damage your lawn and pollute the environment.
Some additional tips for fertilizing tall fescue grass:
- Have your soil tested regularly to determine the nutrient levels in your soil. This will help you to ensure that your lawn is receiving the right nutrients.
- Use a slow-release fertilizer to provide your lawn with a steady supply of nutrients.
- Fertilize your lawn in the spring and fall, when the grass is actively growing.
- Water your lawn deeply and infrequently after fertilizing to help the nutrients reach the grassroots.
- Avoid overfertilizing, as this can damage your lawn and pollute the environment.
Tall fescue grass should be mowed at a height of 2.5 to 4 inches. This mowing height promotes healthy root growth and helps to shade out weeds. The frequency of mowing will vary depending on the grass's growth rate. During the spring and fall, when the grass is actively growing, you may need to mow once a week or more often. During the summer and winter, you can mow less frequently, every 10-14 days.
It is important to avoid removing more than one-third of the grass height in a single mowing. This can stress the grass and make it more susceptible to pests and diseases. Keeping your mower blades sharp is also important. Sharp blades make clean cuts, which minimizes stress on the grass.
Some additional tips for mowing tall fescue grass:
- Mow in the morning when the grass is dry. This will help to prevent the spread of diseases.
- Mow in different directions each time to prevent rutting and compaction.
- Avoid mowing when the grass is wet. This can damage the grass and make it more susceptible to diseases.
- Clean your mower blades after each use to remove any grass clippings or debris. This will help to prevent the spread of diseases.
Prevent Weeds, Pests and Diseases
Tall fescue lawns are susceptible to a variety of pests and diseases. However, there are a number of things you can do to prevent these problems and maintain a healthy and beautiful lawn. According to John Boyd, a Professor at the University of Arkansas, "Tall fescue has few serious pest problems but is subject to brown patch disease under warm, wet conditions."
Common pests of tall fescue lawns include grubs, chinch bugs, and armyworms. Grubs are the larvae of beetles, and they feed on the roots of grass. Chinch bugs are small, red or black insects that suck the juices out of grass blades. Armyworms are caterpillars that feed on grass leaves.
To prevent pests from infesting your tall fescue lawn, you can:
- Choose a pest-resistant variety of tall fescue.
- Keep your lawn healthy and well-maintained. A healthy lawn is more resistant to pests.
- Inspect your lawn regularly for signs of pests. If you see any signs of pests, take steps to control them immediately.
You can control pests in your tall fescue lawn using a variety of methods, including:
- Insecticides: Insecticides can kill pests in your lawn. However, it is important to choose an insecticide that is safe for tall fescue grass.
- Nematodes: Nematodes are microscopic worms that kill pests. Nematodes are a safe and effective way to control pests in tall fescue lawns.
- Integrated pest management (IPM): IPM is a holistic approach to pest control that uses a combination of methods to prevent and control pests. IPM methods include cultural practices, such as proper mowing and watering, as well as biological and chemical controls.
Common diseases of tall fescue lawns include brown patch, dollar spot, and rust. Brown patch is a fungal disease that causes circular patches of brown grass. Dollar spot is a fungal disease that causes small, round spots of brown grass. Rust is a fungal disease that causes orange or brown pustules on grass leaves.
To prevent diseases from infecting your tall fescue lawn, you can:
- Choose a disease-resistant variety of tall fescue.
- Avoid overwatering your lawn. Overwatering can create conditions that are favorable for fungal diseases.
- Fertilize your lawn regularly with a balanced fertilizer. A healthy lawn is more resistant to diseases.
- Mow your lawn at the recommended height. Taller grass will help to shade the soil and prevent it from drying out too much, which can lead to fungal diseases.
- Inspect your lawn regularly for signs of diseases. If you see any signs of diseases, take steps to control them immediately.
You can control diseases in your tall fescue lawn using a variety of methods, including:
- Fungicides: Fungicides can kill fungi that cause diseases. However, it is important to choose a fungicide that is safe for tall fescue grass.
- Cultural practices: Cultural practices, such as proper watering and mowing, can help to prevent diseases.
Weeds can compete with tall fescue grass for water and nutrients, and they can also make your lawn look unsightly. There are a number of things you can do to prevent weeds in your tall fescue lawn.
Some tips for preventing weeds in tall fescue lawns:
- Maintain a thick, healthy lawn. A thick lawn will help to shade out weeds and prevent them from germinating.
- Mow your lawn at the recommended height. Taller grass will help to shade out weeds.
- Water your lawn deeply and infrequently. This will encourage deep root growth, which can make your lawn more competitive with weeds.
- Avoid overfertilizing your lawn. Overfertilizing can promote weed growth.
- Apply a pre-emergent herbicide in the spring and fall to prevent weeds from germinating.
- Hand-pull weeds as soon as you see them.
Pre-emergent herbicides work by preventing weed seeds from germinating. They should be applied in the spring and fall, when most weed seeds germinate. If you have weeds in your lawn, you can hand-pull them or use a post-emergent herbicide. Post-emergent herbicides kill weeds that have already germinated. However, it is important to choose a post-emergent herbicide that is safe for tall fescue grass.